For a straddle carrier to achieve a ten-year life span, operators must establish predictive maintenance schedules, buy only spare parts from the OEM and maybe negate the need for drivers entirely - especially those with mobile phones. Patrik Wheater reports. The TT Club has reported an increase in the number of claims arising from collisions involving straddle carriers, where the driver is thought to have been distracted by using a mobile phone in the cab; in one instance, a driver was composing a text message.

Yet the dangers are real, and the consequences can be severe: in one case a straddle carrier toppled over as the result of a collision, seriously injuring the driver, " says the Club. Operator training becomes more important as increased throughput could lead to more physical and mental stress for the operators, which consequently increases the risk of accidental damage.

Driver error, or more specifically negligence, is one of the most common causes of damage to straddle carriers and although the frame of these workhorses is designed to withstand a knock or two, the mechanical parts of the machines such as wheel forks, wheel yokes and, as a side effect, steering bars, are vulnerable and if the impact is severe enough damage can also occur to the upright columns, side frame and spreader.

Ronco also explains that his company attempts to get the same performance out of its lighter products as the heavier kind but at a lower cost in terms of fuel consumption and energy spent to drive or to lift. The basic strad is designed for 50,hours of operation - about ten years at a busy terminal.

There are certain components, like a diesel engine, that require rebuild after 10 to 15, hours whilst transmissions and brakes are probably good for 8, hours before the need to undertake major overhaul work and the frame is good for about 50, hours.

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Terry Derry, sales director, Africa, for Kalmar, along with other manufacturers PS spoke to, stresses that maintenance is the key issue and encourages operators to adhere to the maintenance schedules and daily checks that the manufacturers advise.

And for early generation products Derry advises the inclusion of predictive maintenance regimes on the basis that major components are replaced or rebuilt before they fail.

Predictive maintenance allows the customer to properly plan when a component is due for rebuild or replacement and to schedule the machine for this work at the most convenient time, " Derry says. So when operators re-line the brake shoes with the pirate liner, they just don't get the lifetime. Re-lining a brake is quite a lengthy procedure: the shoe has to be adhered to the liner first, baked in an oven to ensure adhesion of the compound, and then riveted as a further safety measure.

But some operators in South Africa have apparently sent a set of shoes to be re-lined with instruction for their return the same day. Strads weigh 60 tons before they've even picked up a forty-foot container and if the brake liner gives way it could actually wreck the brake drum. Noell says it only "co-operates with the most famous component makers for important parts for engines and brakes etc.

The sum of reliability of the major components, our experience and quality in engineering and assembling? However, Southampton Container Terminal's SCT Cameron Waugh is sceptical about claims that non-OEM parts are less reliable than their OEM counterparts and believes that "it's more of a problem for the manufacturer than it is for [the terminal operators]. Germany's Noell Crane Systems and Kalmar both cite an ergonometric and modular design as optimising the accessibility to all areas of the strad to allow easy repair or replacement of components.

And most OEMs boast state-of-of-the-art diagnostics technology to enable effective troubleshooting for an immediate and detailed identification, location and origin of a straddle carrier's malfunction.

Sophisticated automation of course features heavily in modern design and Kalmar's fully automated unmanned units are gaining favour in Australia, where the new machines were first trialled in Unmanned systems are also being considered by SCT, which "may invest in these systems as it will decrease the risk. Of course, if the industry does fully embrace the unmanned system, then the straddle carrier driver will be able to make optimum use of his mobile phone in the hunt for alternative employment.

Container shipping is born In the same year, Matson Lines, in an effort to save time, begins to stack one container on top of one another using a prototype stacker called the "Van Carrier" US government proposes to standardise the size of a shipping container.

In the s Swedish spreader manufacturer Bromma Smides AB patents its twistlock design which is still widely used to this day Clark Equipment's Model straddle carrier was developed to stack the increasingly common 20' unit three-high. Later, the L, designed to handle 40 footers, becomes the company's most popular model. In the s the straddle carrier suffers a reputation for unreliability and a number of ports begin to favour RTGs.

In Valmet same family as Kalmar launches the "Container Stacker"; Noell then Peiner introduces its PPH top mounted single engine mechanically driven straddle carrier; and then Nellen a.We're bringing you a failure analysis that can help you figure out what's going on with your liners! Read on to see if you're experiencing any of these failures. Still have questions about failures in your diesel engine? The picture below shows one of the liner o-rings that twisted during assembly in the engine.

The root cause of failure was foreign material contamination due to poor assembly practices and procedures. The contamination caused blow-by in the first set of rings, was not corrected, and caused the same failure condition in the second set of rings. Want to know more about flange failures? Check out our post on broken or cracked flanges. Welcome Guest Log In. Sidebar Liner Failure Analysis Are you having trouble with the liners in your diesel engine?

Give Us A Call! Below you can see a view of the inside of the liner pictured above. It shows a buildup of transferred skirt material at the bottom of liner caused by the o-ring forcing the liner inward. The first picture is of two liners from a 16V Detroit Diesel marine engine. Note the presence of heat spots on the lower area of the liners as pointed out with the yellow arrows. Heat spots occur when there is excessive clearance between the liner and the block.

This area will have very poor heat transfer and will allow for liner movement and distortion. This can cause the liner to crack in the port area or other locations on the liner where stress loads exceed design strength. The next picture shows the pitting blue arrow and scale buildup green arrow on one of the liners.

Pitting and scale buildup is a clear indication that the cooling system has not been maintained and no additives or corrosion inhibitors were used. Scale buildup will affect heat transfer and cause higher than normal cylinder temperatures potentially leading to scoring and premature failure of cylinder components.

The pitting can and will cause stress risers to develop in the liner, potentially leading to cracks and premature liner failure. Are you having trouble with pitting in your liners?

The next picture shows the underside of the liner flange in front of the fractured area of the 5 left bank liner. Note the pits blue arrow and the four clean marks indicating foreign material was trapped between the flange and the block red arrows.

The next picture shows the score marks inside one of the liners white arrow. Scratches and some scoring are present in most of the liners. The final picture shows the crown and rings on one of the pistons; all of the pistons are similar in appearance. The white deposits are caused by additives in the oil. A perfect seal between the piston rings can never be achieved, thus a certain amount of engine oil will enter the combustion burn.

As the engine oil enters the combustion chamber and burns, the residue forms an ash-like material. This ash-like material contributes to deposits in the crown above the piston ring, as well as to the deposits in the ring grooves. These deposits can lead to rubbing wear on the cylinder liner, causing the piston rings to cease operating freely. Ultimately, the cylinder liner-to-ring interface is compromised and high oil consumption can occur. After the original rebuild, the customer complained of excessive blow-by.

He disassembled the engine, honed the liners and installed new rings. Upon start up the engine was found to have excessive blow-by.Figure 1. Internal combustion engine used in a forklift. Internal Combustion The most widely used forklifts have an internal combustion engine powered by fuels that include gas, liquid petroleum, diesel fuel, and compressed natural gas.

Forklifts with internal combustion engines can be quickly refueled but require regular maintenance checks for leaks of fuel or oil, worn parts requiring replacement, and to keep systems working properly.

Newer forklifts with internal combustion engines have on-board sensors that monitor and adjust emissions and have catalytic converters that help reduce emissions. Potential Hazards: Exposure to engine exhaust containing carbon monoxide.

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If the engine is not properly combusting fuel, the exhaust may contain high levels of carbon monoxide. Exposure to spills and leaks of fuel and oil. Requirements and Recommended Practices: Do not operate in a poorly ventilated area where vapors can concentrate. Carefully wash away or completely evaporate spillage of oil or fuel.

As part of the pre-operation inspection, check all fluid levels, including oil, water, and hydraulic. Check for leaks from the hydraulic cylinder, the battery, and the fuel system. Check the exhaust color for incomplete combustion. For example, black smoke may be an indication of incomplete combustion. Check and report unusual noises or excessive vibration. Refueling: Gasoline and Diesel Forklifts that use gasoline are easy to refuel.

However, gasoline is very flammable. Potential Hazards: Exposure to explosive vapors. Requirements and Recommended Practices: Figure 2. Operator refueling diesel-powered forklift. What's New Offices. Safety and Health Topic Page Credits. Forklifts powered by internal combustion engines run on a variety of fuels, including gasoline, diesel fuel, liquid petroleum gas LPGand compressed natural gas.

Forklifts with internal combustion engines can be quickly refueled but require regular maintenance checks for leaks of fuel or oil and worn parts to keep systems working properly. Forklifts powered by internal combustion engines are also used indoors, although this may increase exposure to exhaust and noise. Internal Combustion. The most widely used forklifts have an internal combustion engine powered by fuels that include gas, liquid petroleum, diesel fuel, and compressed natural gas.

Refueling: Gasoline and Diesel.The field of the present invention is fuel rails for internal combustion engines and in particular, fuel rails for reciprocating piston, spark-ignited internal combustion engines. In the past three decades, there have been major technological efforts to increase the fuel efficiency of automotive vehicles.

One technical trend to improve fuel efficiency has been to reduce the overall weight of the vehicle. A second trend to improve fuel efficiency has been to improve the aerodynamic design of a vehicle to lower its aerodynamic drag.

Still another trend is to address the overall fuel efficiency of the engine. Prior tothe majority of production vehicles with a reciprocating piston gasoline engine had a carburetor fuel supply system in which gasoline is delivered via the engine throttle body and is therefore mixed with the incoming air.

Accordingly, the amount of fuel delivered to any one cylinder is a function of the incoming air delivered to a given cylinder. Airflow into a cylinder is effected by many variables including the flow dynamics of the intake manifold and the flow dynamics of the exhaust system. To increase fuel efficiency and to better control exhaust emissions, many vehicle manufacturers went to port fuel injection systems, where the carburetor was replaced by a fuel injector that injected the fuel into a port which typically served a plurality of cylinders.

Although port fuel injection is an improvement over the prior carburetor fuel injection system, it is still desirable to further improve the control of fuel delivered to a given cylinder.

In a step to further enhance fuel delivery, many spark ignited gasoline engines have gone to a system wherein there is supplied a fuel injector for each individual cylinder. The fuel injectors receive their fuel from a fuel rail, which is typically connected with all or half of the fuel injectors on one bank of an engine.

Inline 4, 5 and 6 cylinder engines typically have one bank. V-block type 6, 8, 10 and 12 cylinder engines have two banks. One critical aspect of a fuel rail application is the delivery of a precise amount of fuel at a precise pressure.

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In an actual application, the fuel is delivered to the rail from the fuel pump in the vehicle fuel tank. At an engine off condition, the pressure within the fuel rail is typically 45 to 60 psi.

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When the engine is started, a typical injector firing of milligrams per pulse momentarily depletes the fuel locally in the fuel rail.

Then the sudden closing of the injector creates a pressure pulse back into the fuel rail. The injectors will typically be open 1. The opening and closing of the injectors creates pressure pulsations typically psi peak-to-peak up and down the fuel rail, resulting in an undesirable condition where the pressure locally at a given injector may be higher or lower than the injector is ordinarily calibrated to.

If the pressure adjacent to the injector within the fuel rail is outside a given calibrated range, then the fuel delivered upon the next opening of the injector may be higher or lower than that preferred. Pulsations are also undesirable in that they can cause noise generation. Pressure pulsations can be exaggerated in a returnless delivery system where there is a single feed into the fuel rail and the fuel rail has a closed end point.

To reduce undesired pulsations within the fuel rails, many fuel rails are provided with added pressure dampeners. Dampeners with elastomeric diaphragms can reduce peak-to-peak pulsations to approximately psi. However, added pressure dampeners are sometimes undesirable in that they add extra expense to the fuel rail and also provide additional leak paths in their connection with the fuel rail or leak paths due to the construction of the dampener.Noise Risk Description.

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